The frequency of formation of a motivated refusal to take androgenic anabolic steroids by men with recreational activity

  • Authors: Lykhonosov M.P.1, Babenko A.Y.2,3, Makarin V.A.4, Fedotov Y.N.4
  • Affiliations:
    1. Pavlov First Saint Petersburg State Medical University
    2. Pavlov First Saint Petersburg StateMedical University
    3. Almazov National Medical Research Centre, St. Petersburg, Russia
    4. 3Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Saint-Petersburg State University", Saint Petersburg, Russia
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  • DOI:
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Background: The widespread use of AAS for non-medical purposes is more than often becoming the cause of secondary hypogonadism. The study of the formation of the negative attitude towards the use of AAS among the gym visitors is quite relevant.

Aims: To identify the frequency of the formation of a motivated refusal to continue taking androgenic anabolic steroids among men who voluntarily declared their use.

Materials and methods: The study included 44 men, all users of AAS. There has been estimated the effectiveness of the clinical examination: how ready they were to disclose information about the use of AAS (drugs, doses, regimens, duration) or how much they were aware of the mechanisms of action of AAS and their effects on the body. The participants were also asked to evaluate their psychological and emotional state (on the scale "Index of life satisfaction", Hamilton’s depression, aggressiveness). The experience of our informational lectures on the topic “Risks of using AAS” prior to the selection of volunteers for research, anonymous surveys and interviews with potential participants in the clinical trial, the clinical work itself with the selected volunteers, the characteristic features of a medical history and tests that we identified were compared with clinical recommendations for hypogonadism diagnostic (domestic and foreign).

Results: More than 105 gym visitors responded positively to a motivated offer (free medical consultation and laboratory tests) to participate in a clinical study. Based on the results of the individual interview, 54 men (51.4%) who indicated the use of AAS signed an informed consent. 44 volunteers (41.9%) completed all stages of the study. Among them, 32 participants (72.7%) were aware of the mechanisms of action and side effects of AAS. 21 volunteers (47.7%) filled in the scales. The index of life satisfaction was determined as high, equal to 34 [29; 38] points; the index of aggressiveness was higher than the generally accepted standard and composed 27 [25; 29] points, the level of depression corresponded to a mild depressive disorder, equal to 9 [3; 12] points. Over the use of AAS 22.7% (n = 10) of the examined noted an increase in aggressiveness, which they themselves associated with the use of steroids. The clinical symptoms of hypogonadism (decreased libido, erectile dysfunction) after the cancellation of AAS were indicated by 25% (n = 11) of the volunteers and that was one of the reasons they continued to use anabolics. 31.8% (n = 14) of the participants were ready to completely stop using the steroids.

Conclusions: Individual informational interviews aimed at providing knowledge about the negative effects of steroids on the body motivated the desire to stop using them amongst 31.8% of AAS users. The obtained data points out to a developed AAS addiction which requires the involvement of psychiatrists to get rid of it.

Mykola P. Lykhonosov

Pavlov First Saint Petersburg State
Medical University

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6460-5226
SPIN-code: 2102-5358

Russian Federation, 6/9, Lva Tolstogo street, St. Petersburg, 197022

MD, PhD student Pavlov First Saint Petersburg State
Medical University

Alina Y. Babenko

Pavlov First Saint Petersburg StateMedical University;
Almazov National Medical Research Centre, St. Petersburg, Russia

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0559-697X
SPIN-code: 9388-1077

Russian Federation, 6/9, Lva Tolstogo street, St. Petersburg, 197022; 2 Akkuratova str., Saint- Petersburg, 197341.

MD, PhD, Associate Professor

Viktor A. Makarin

3Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Saint-Petersburg State University", Saint Petersburg, Russia

ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1710-8045
SPIN-code: 8885-2085

Russian Federation, Cadet line. VO, 15, St. Petersburg, 199034


Yury  N. Fedotov

3Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Saint-Petersburg State University", Saint Petersburg, Russia

ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0445-9428

Russian Federation, Cadet line. VO, 15, St. Petersburg, 199034

MD, PhD, Professor

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