The role of diabetes in the onset and development of endothelial dysfunction

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Abstract


The vascular endothelium performs many functions. It is a key regulator of vascular homeostasis, maintains a balance between vasodilation and vasoconstriction, inhibition and stimulation of smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, fibrinolysis and thrombosis, and is involved to regulation of platelet adhesion and aggregation. Endothelial dysfunction (ED) plays the critical role in pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM) vascular complications. The purpose of this review was to consider the mechanisms leading to the occurrence of ED in DM. The paper discusses current literature data concerning the role of hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, advanced glycation end products in endothelial alteration. A separate section is devoted to the particularities of the functioning of the antioxidant system and their significance in the development of ED in DM. The analysis of the literature allows to conclude that pathological activation of glucose utilization pathways causes damage of endothelial cells, which is accompanied by disorders of all their basic functions. Metabolic disorders in DM cause a pronounced imbalance of free radical processes and antioxidant defense, accompanied by oxidative stress of endotheliocytes, which contributes to the progression of ED and the development of vascular complications. Many aspects of multicomponent regulatory reactions in the pathogenesis of the development of ED in DM have not been sufficiently studied.


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About the authors

Era B. Popyhova

Saratov State Medical University named after V. I. Razumovsky

Email: PopyhovaEB@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7662-4755
SPIN-code: 7810-3930

Russian Federation, 112 Bolshaya Kazachia st., Saratov, 410012

PhD

Tatiana V. Stepanova

Saratov State Medical University named after V. I. Razumovsky

Email: cnil-sgmu@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8439-8033
SPIN-code: 2744-9679

Russian Federation, 112 Bolshaya Kazachia st., Saratov, 410012

Junior Research Assistant of Central Scientific Research Laboratory

Dar’ya D. Lagutina

Saratov State Medical University named after V. I. Razumovsky

Email: cnil-sgmu@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6219-3846
SPIN-code: 5786-2514

Russian Federation, 112 Bolshaya Kazachia st., Saratov, 410012

Assistant of Central Scientific Research Laboratory

Tatiana S. Kiriiazi

Saratov Medical University "Reaviz"

Email: fev.6171@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6332-5249
SPIN-code: 5010-4870

Russian Federation, 10 Verhnii rinok st., Saratov, 410012, Russia

PhD, Associate Professor of Department of Biomedical Sciences

Alexey N. Ivanov

Saratov State Medical University named after V. I. Razumovsky

Author for correspondence.
Email: lex558452@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4061-5221
SPIN-code: 3397-1840
Scopus Author ID: 56323761700
ResearcherId: L-5768-2015
Mendeley Profile: https://www.mendeley.com/profiles/alexey-ivanov16/

Russian Federation, 112 Bolshaya Kazachia st., Saratov, 410012

Dsc, Head of Central Scientific Research Laboratory

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Fig. Scheme of the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus

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