Vol 42, No 2 (1996)

Peptide hormones and current problems of biotechnology
Pankov Y.A.
Abstract

The study of peptide hormones is a rapidly and dynamically developing field of biology throughout the world, closely associated with the latest achievements of fundamental science and medical practice. The study of peptide hormones was greatly influenced by recent major events in science. In the mid-70s, thanks to classical studies by F. Sanger et al., A. M. Mahat and W. Gilbert, efficient methods for sequencing DNA nucleotide sequences were developed. Later this event became known as the revolution in molecular biology. Together with the existing methods for cloning fragments of nucleotide sequences in plasmids and phages, they made it possible to develop a modern recombinant DNA methodology, which formed the basis of rapidly developing genetic engineering biotechnology, bioorganic chemistry, molecular genetics, microbiology, virology, and a number of other scientific disciplines. Recent advances in molecular biology have tremendously accelerated the entire process of scientific knowledge and made it a reality, for example, to develop global scientific programs such as the study of the complete nucleotide sequence of the human genome. It is no exaggeration to say that over the past 20 years, biological science has accumulated more experimental data than over the entire previous period of its development. At present, 70-80% of research in the advanced countries of the world is carried out using molecular biology methods, which now allow us to solve such scientific problems within 1 year that previously had to be spent decades.

Problems of Endocrinology. 1996;42(2):3-8
views
Clinical endocrinology
Glurenorm in diabetic nephropathy: effects on renal function and vascular endothelium
Shestakova M.V., Shamkhalova M.S., Ukhanova T.T., Ryndina M.G., Dedov I.I.
Abstract

Study of the effects of glurenorm, an oral sugar- reducing drug, on renal function and vascular endothelium in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus at different stages of diabetic involvement of the kidneys, including those with chronic renal insufficiency, revealed that glurenorm in therapeutic doses had no nephrotoxic effect; moreover, it maintained the filtration function of the kidneys even in patients with the initial stage of chronic renal insufficiency (with blood serum creatinine of up to 200 mmol/liter. Therapy with glurenorm for 3 and 6 months caused a reliable reduction of the production of thromboxane A, a vasoconstrictor, this probably improving the intrarenal hemodynamics, and exerting an antiproteinuric effect in patients with manifest diabetic nephropathy. At the same time, glurenorm therapy did not appreciably influence the production of factors released by vascular endothelium (prostacyclin and endothelin-1). Hence, a detailed study of renal function and vascular endothelium in patients with type II diabetes demonstrated that administration of glurenorm to patients with manifest renal involvement was not only safe, but even favorably affected the intrarenal hemodynamics and had an antiproteinuric effect.

Problems of Endocrinology. 1996;42(2):8а-11
views
Experience gained with application of the all-european program “DIABCARE”: summing up the studies and treatment of diabetics in Novosibirsk
Zhuk Y.A., Galenok V.A., Selezneva N.I., Anisimova T.A., Mefodyeva T.A.
Abstract

Analysis of clinical features of type I diabetes mellitus and of the status of health services using the chart of Diabcare, an All-European Program, demonstrated that the system of following up such patients is to be altered. The infrastructure of medicare is to be changed, schools are to be set up for training diabetics, diabetological centers organized, patients be provided for with means of automonitoring, and insulin supply be stable.

Problems of Endocrinology. 1996;42(2):11-13
views
Finoptin effect on electrolyte metabolism of diabetics with essential hypertension
Melchinskaya Y.N., Gromnatsky N.I., Vishnevsky V.I.
Abstract

It is universally acknowledged that some hypotensive agents may have a negative impact on electrolyte metabolism. This study was aimed at investigating the baseline status of electrolyte metabolism in patients with types I and II diabetes and concomitant essential hypertension and at following up the changes in this parameter over the course of verapamil (finoptin) therapy. Fifty-six patients were followed up. Levels of potassium and sodium in the plasma and red cells, total and ionized calcium in the plasma were measured before therapy and after 0.5, 1.5, and 6 months of finoptin therapy. Higher levels of plasma potassium and red cell sodium were revealed in patients with type I diabetes in comparison with those with type II condition. In patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes potassium concentrations in red cells and ionized calcium in the plasma were higher. Finoptin therapy promoted a decrease of sodium concentration in the red cells in diabetics with both types I and II condition and a reduction of the level of ionized calcium in the plasma of patients with type II diabetes. Changes in the electrolyte metabolism were transitory and do not require special laboratory monitoring.

Problems of Endocrinology. 1996;42(2):13-15
views
Myocardial involvement in diabetes mellitus: echocardiography data
Sokolov Y.I., Zayev A.P., Olkha R.P., Morozova T.P., Zhizhina S.A., Korolevskaya L.I.
Abstract

Echocardiographic parameters of the central and intracardiac hemodynamics were analyzed in 67 patients with compensated diabetes mellitus of types I and II of 2 to 6 years standing. The control group consisted of 30 subjects. The increase of the minute volume, stroke volume, specific power of the left ventricle, and reduction of total peripheral resistance were revealed in both groups of patients. These shifts are characteristic of a hyperkinetic type of central hemodynamics. The hyperdynamic syndrome was due to left-ventricular hypertrophy in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes and due to increased heart rate and the rate of circulatory shortening of myocardial fibers in patients with the insulin-dependent condition. Impaired diastolic function presenting as an increase of the end diastolic volume and a reduced rate of relaxation of the left-ventricular posterior wall myocardium were observed in all the patients, no matter what the type of the condition. The above shifts are predictors of a reduction of myocardial contractility, responsible for the grave and atypical course of coronary disease in diabetics.

Problems of Endocrinology. 1996;42(2):15-17
views
Screening of young subjects for goiter: role of ultrasonic examinations
Zykova T.A., Fefilov A.L., Tsyganova O.A., Martyushova N.A., Sukhanova O.N., Zykova S.N.
Abstract

Eighty-two students in whom goiter was diagnosed by palpation were examined by ultrasonography. Assessment of the volume of the thyroid in these students revealed diffuse goiter in only 5.5% and nodular in 22% cases. Thyroid dysfunction was diagnosed in 16% subjects with diffuse or nodular goiter. Sonographic examination of the thyroid with an assessment of its volume and echostructure helps more accurately diagnose goiter and plan therapeutic measures.

Problems of Endocrinology. 1996;42(2):17-20
views
Craniopharyngioma in children: accelerated growth phenomenon after surgery for somatotropic hormone insufficiency
Mazerkina N.A., Tyulpakov A.N., Gorelyshev S.K., Peterkova V.A., Bulatov A.A., Yelizarova G.P., Goncharov N.P., Kolesnikova G.S., Pankova S.S.
Abstract

Thirty-two children with craniopharyngiomas aged 3.6 to 18.9 were examined. The patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 consisted of 16 children treated conservatively and group 2 of 16 children subjected to radical surgery. No release of growth hormone in response to clonidine stimulation (no more than 4,5 ng/ml) was observed in both groups; growth hormone release in response to administration of growth hormone releasing factor was reliably (p=0.003) higher in group 1 than in group 2 (7.5 ± 3.9 and 2,5 ± 5.1 ng/ml, respectively). At the same time, growth SDS was closer to the norm in group 2 than in group 1 (-1.27 ± 1.3 and - 2.04 ± 1.4, respectively), and growth rate in 8 out of 12 children in group 2, despite growth hormone insufficiency, was 6-12 cm/year. Comparison of the levels of serum prolactin in both groups showed no reliable differences, and the standard glucose tolerance test showed a high basal and stimulated level of insulin secretion in 8 children in group 2 and in 1 girl in group 1. The total, area under the curve representing insulin secretion (ACins) was 3016.0 ± 4288.8 IU/l - min in group 1 and 5378.8 + 4511.2 IU/ 1 • min in group 2, the correlation between ACins and growth SDS being 0.58 and between ACins and body weight index 0.61. Normal or high growth rate was observed in all the children with hyperinsulinism (ACins over 6000 IU/l • min) and in 2 with normal insulin release after surgery, this permitting a conclusion on the principal role of insulin in growth stimulation in the presence of growth hormone insufficiency in these children.

Problems of Endocrinology. 1996;42(2):20-25
views
Norditropin, a recombinant growth hormone in the treatment of children with somatotropic insufficiency
Dedov I.I., Tyulpakov A.N., Peterkova V.A., Goncharov N.P., Kolesnikova G.S.
Abstract

The efficacy and safety of recombinant growth hormone (GH) Norditropin (Novo Nordisk) for children suffering from somatotropic insufficiency have been assessed in clinical trials. Twenty-three children (8 girls and 15 boys) aged 6.3 to 17.5 (mean ± SD: 12.3 ± 5.96 years) were followed up. The diagnosis was verified by clofelin and/or insulin stimulation tests (max. serum level of GH in the tests no more than 7 ng/ml) and by measuring GH concentration in the nocturnal portion of urine by U-hGH NordiTest TM (Novo Nordisk) kits. Norditropin was injected daily subcutaneously in the evening in a daily dose of 0.07 to 0.1 IU/kg b. w. The treatment was administered for 6 months. During the first 3 months of treatment growth SDS in relation to chronological age increased from -4.5 ± 1.12 to -3.9 ± 1.08 (p<0.0001) and the velocity of growth increased from 2.8 ± 1.05 to 18.1 ± 4.73 cm/year (p<0.0001). A further increment in body length was observed during the second trimester, although the change of growth SDS in relation to chronological age was less expressed than during the first trimester (0.5 ± 0.19 vs. 0.35 ± 0.19, p=0.012). The gain in height over 6 months of treatment was 7.6 ± 1.01 cm (min. 6.2 cm, max. 9.8 cm), Bone age altered from 6.3 ± 2.99 to 7.3 + 2.66 years (p=0.005) during 6  months; at the same time, despite acceleration of bone age, therapy was conducive to growth SDS increase in relation to bone age (from 1.1 ± 2.87 to 1.7 ± 2.0; Z=2.1, p=0.04), this indicating a better growth prognosis. The treatment caused virtually no side effects of any type. Hence, clinical trials demonstrated the efficacy and safety of GH Norditropin for children with somatotropic insufficiency.

Problems of Endocrinology. 1996;42(2):25-29
views
Androgen-receptor activity in patients with false male hermaphroditism: a critical review of methods of investigation
Kasatkina E.P., Samsonova L.N., Kushlinsky N.Y., Lyakina L.T.
Abstract

The paper is devoted to search for informative methods of examining patients with false male hermaphroditism which would permit assessment of androgen receptor activity in the early postnatal period and, hence, timely verify the testicular feminization syndrome and determine the desirable sex for upbringing the patient. With this aim in view specific binding of androgen receptors in the cytosol fraction of pubic skin biopsy specimens and sensitivity of androgen-dependent tissues to exogenously injected testosterone were studied in 60 patients aged 9 months to 14 years. The latter parameter was assessed by two methods: in response to parenteral depot-testosterone and to application of oily solution of testosterone propionate. Study of specific binding of androgen receptors in the cytosol fraction of pubic skin biopsy specimens was not informative for the diagnosis of the testicular feminization syndrome. The diagnostic value of investigating the sensitivity of androgen-dependent tissues to exogenous testosterone assessed by clinical signs (pigmentation of the scrotum, erection, and size of the penis) together with assessment of androgen receptor activity is satisfactory and does not depend on the mode of drug administration.

Problems of Endocrinology. 1996;42(2):29-31
views
Case Reports
Telangiectasia, ataxia, hypermobility syndrome, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and diabetes - a new syndrome?
Kuraeva T.L., Remizov O.V., Arkhipov B.A., Dedov I.I.
Abstract

The proportion of people with genetic syndromes accompanied by diabetes mellitus or impaired tolerance to carbohydrates is less than 1% among all patients with diabetes mellitus. Currently, more than 70 such syndromes are described, in the clinical manifestation of which impaired tolerance to carbohydrates or diabetes mellitus is important. Examples include ataxia - telangiectasia, myotonic dystrophy, generalized or partial lipodystrophy. In the available literature, we have not seen any observations of the combination of diabetes mellitus with telangiectasias, ataxia, hypermobility of the joints, hyper-stretch of the skin, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We give an observation. Patient A., 15 years old, was admitted to the children's department of the Institute of Diabetes of the Endocrinology Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences with complaints of sharp weakness in the legs, inability to move independently, bleeding gums, nosebleeds, thirst, polyuria. Mother 39 years old, father 43 years old, sister 12 years old, all are healthy. A patient from the 3rd pregnancy, which proceeded with the threat of interruption throughout pregnancy. Two previous pregnancies in the patient's mother ended in miscarriages. Childbirth at the 8th month in the buttock presentation, with placental abruption. Body weight at birth 1800 g, body length 44 cm. The patient was born in asphyxia, with hemorrhages in the skin of the face. At the age of 2 years, 3 months after ARVI, the child developed shortness of breath, liver enlargement up to 6 cm from under the edge of the costal arch along the midclavicular line, and an increase in systolic blood pressure to 130 mm Hg. Art. At 3 years 4 months old, the diagnosis was established: idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis. From this age, the patient was periodically disturbed by severe abdominal pain, accompanied by nausea and vomiting, which were regarded as an exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis. The last attack at 15 years (urine amylase within normal limits). At 6 years of age, due to frequent nosebleeds observed from the age of 5, as well as telangiectasia of the skin vessels, he was diagnosed with Osler–Weber–Rendu syndrome disease. In connection with the persisting hepatomegaly, a glucose tolerance test was performed at the age of 15 to exclude glycogenosis. A violation of tolerance to carbohydrates was revealed. After 1 month, symptoms of diabetes appeared. After another 1 month in a precomatous state, the patient was hospitalized in the regional children's hospital at the place of residence. At discharge, the daily dose of insulin was 44 units. 3 months after the manifestation of diabetes mellitus appeared weakness in the legs, which progressed rapidly. After 5 months, the patient was hospitalized at the Endocrinology Research Centre of RAMS.

Problems of Endocrinology. 1996;42(2):32-34
views
Experimental endocrinology
The effect of new long-acting testosterone bucyclate ester on the spermatogenesis and endocrine function of steroid-secreting glands in male Papio hamadryas
Goncharov N.P., Katsiya G.V., Butnev V.Y., Gorlushkin V.M.
Abstract

Effects of two (at 3 month interval) intramuscular injections of testosterone bucyclate (ТВ) in doses of 4 and 8 mg/kg b. w. were studied in adult male Papio hamadryas. Both ТВ doses suppressed spermatogenesis, but this effect abated with dose increase. Azoospermia was observed in 33% ejaculate samples after ТВ in a dose of 4 mg/kg, whereas after injection of 8 mg/kg it was found in only 6% samples. Moreover, the level of peripheral testosterone depends on ТВ dose as well. It reduces by half after injection of a lower dose and surpasses the control values by 20 to 120% after injection of 8 mg/kg. Time course of LH after injection of the androgen in both doses was characterized by a phase pattern: during the first phase (0 to 16 weeks) the levels of hormone varied, and a trend to reduction could be traced; during the second phase (weeks 16-24) the concentration of the hormone sharply increased and thus remained till the end of experiment. Prolonged exposure to long-acting ТВ may inhibit the secretion of adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone and precursor of the ∆5-pathway of steroid synthesis 17-Oxypregnelone.

Problems of Endocrinology. 1996;42(2):34-37
views
Hormonal function of sexual glands and adrenals in monkeys of different age
Goncharova N.D., Mkhitarova L.A.
Abstract

The levels of bioactive LH, major sex and adrenal steroid hormones and their precursors in the system of biosynthesis were measured in the peripheral blood of 37 male Papio hamadryas of different age under baseline conditions and after injection of ACTH, LH releasing hormone, and human chorionic gonadotropin. The measurements were carried out in adult animals with the optimal reproductive characteristics (group 1, aged 6 to 9, and group 2, aged 10 to 15 years) and in aging males (group 3, aged 20 to 26 years). The levels of hydrocortisone and its immediate precursor in the biosynthesis chain of 11-deoxyhydrocortisone virtually did not change with age, whereas the concentrations of ∆5-precursors (pregnenolone and 17-hydroxypregnenolone) gradually reduced with aging. The levels of the major adrenal androgens dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate also appreciably decreased with age. The levels of sex hormones did not change between 6 and 15 years of age; but in animals aged 20 to 26 the concentration of testosterone showed a trend to reduction, and that of LH to increase. In group 3 the peaks of LH and testosterone secretion in response to LH releasing factor were delayed. On the other hand, the amplitude and duration of the increment of both LH and testosterone in response to LH releasing factor was virtually unchanged at all ages and was largely determined by the basal level of LH. The detected age-specific changes in the hormonal function of adrenals and sex glands of Papio hamadryas are much similar to those in humans.

Problems of Endocrinology. 1996;42(2):37-41
views
Reviews
Gestagens and heart
Karachentsev A.N., Sergeev P.V., Matyushin A.I.
Abstract

The use of gestagen hormones (progestogens, progestogens, progestins) in modern medicine is mainly based on their effect on the reproductive sphere of the female body, including menstrual dysfunction (luteal phase of the cycle), contraception, pregnancy support, correction of hormonal homeostasis during menopause, antitumor activity in some hormone-dependent oncological diseases. The presence of antiandrogenic properties in a number of progestogens (C21-derivatives), which have found application as antihormonal therapy for certain endocrine diseases in women (hirsutism) and for malignant neoplasms of the male genital organs, should be highlighted. The variety of influences exerted by natural gestagen hormones and their synthetic analogs on the human body also encompasses a change in their action of cardiovascular activity. Moreover, according to some authors, the heart and large vessels are the targets of the action of gestagens. It is assumed that a change in the hormonal characteristics of the female body during the normal menstrual cycle does not cause existing changes in the reactivity of the cardiovascular system. However, fluctuations in cardioactive and vasoactive parameters can be observed even with physiological differences in the level of endogenous progestogens and estrogens (menstrual cycle, pregnancy, menopause). The greatest severity of maladaptation phenomena in cardiac activity (according to the mathematical analysis of cardiointervalograms) was revealed precisely at peak concentrations of female sex hormones within the estrous cycle - in the phases of proestrus and metaestrus. During menopause and postmenopause, when the cardioprotective effect of endogenous estrogens and gestagens is significantly reduced, a violation of cardiac and vasomotor activity can be detected, often requiring hormone replacement therapy with estrogen-gestagen drugs.

Problems of Endocrinology. 1996;42(2):42-45
views
Peer-REVIEW
M.I. Neimark, A.P. Kalinin. Anesthesia and Intensive Care in Endocrine Surgery
Lukiyanchikov V.S.
Abstract

Anesthesia and surgery for endocrine diseases often cause endocrine-metabolic crises and com. Therefore, endocrine surgery is especially close to the goals and methods of anesthesiology and intensive care. This also determines the relevance of this monograph, the key idea of ​​which is that in the surgical treatment of diseases of the endocrine glands, intensive observation and treatment is not an episode, but a constant regimen, which is carried out before the operation, during and after it, and often for life. The originality and high level of the monograph is already evidenced by the 1st chapter. Pituitary surgery is the competence of neurosurgeons and neuroanesthesiologists. To the credit of the authors, when considering these questions, they almost never repeat the classical monograph of A. 3. Manevich and V. I. Salalykin and even supplement it from endocrinological positions. Of course, thyroid surgery remains at the center of endocrine surgery, but the authors exaggerate, considering the surgical method to be the main one in thyroidology. Contrary to themselves, they not only give many routine methods of conservative treatment of thyroid diseases, but also detail conditionally surgical methods such as acupuncture, plasmapheresis, UV and laser therapy.

Problems of Endocrinology. 1996;42(2):45-46
views

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies