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Vol 46, No 2 (2000)

New signaling systems in hormonal regulation mechanisms
Pankov Y.A.
Abstract

In his research activities, Nikolai Alekseevich Yudaev paid great attention to the study of the mechanisms of the biological action of hormones. He extremely liked the postulate that hormones regulate gene expression. Great interest in this problem predetermined the choice of the topic of this lecture at scientific readings devoted to his memory. The proposed publication is devoted to the consideration of new data on intracellular signal transduction of a number of hormones, such as growth hormone (GH), prolactin, and other protein hormones exhibiting a similar mechanism of biological action. It is well known that GR and prolactin are pituitary hormones, but not everyone knows that they can also be secreted by other tissues and are directly related to the regulation of immune processes.

 

Problems of Endocrinology. 2000;46(2):3-8
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Reviews
Apoptosis a role in the development of type 1 diabetes
Mokhort T.V., Melnov S.B., Goranov V.A.
Abstract

In recent decades, the attention of biologists and doctors of various specialties has been attracted by the phenomenon of apoptosis a genetically programmed process of death and utilization of committed cells with the participation of biochemical reactions controlled by the whole organism [6 |. This process starts as a result of the interaction of the regulatory systems of the body and (or) direct contact with biologically active substances that directly or indirectly affect the functional state of the cells [2]. Obviously, apoptosis is of great importance for the processes that ensure the physiological renewal of tissues in the body, and for pathological processes, in particular autoimmune, accompanied by cell death. At present, there is sufficient reason to assert that insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) occurs as a result of the death of P-cells (CD) as a result of the cytotoxic effect of immunological agents and (or) certain chemicals [1] that proceeds with the participation of apoptosis.

Problems of Endocrinology. 2000;46(2):8-13
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Features of the debut of diabetes mellitus type 1 development of remission
Smirnova O.M., Gorelysheva V.A., Dedov I.I.
Abstract

After clinical manifestation in most patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), a transient decrease in insulin demand is associated with an improvement in the function of the remaining p-cells within 1 to 6 months. This most favorable period during IDDM has been called the “Honeymoon”, or remission period. Complete clinical remission of the disease, accompanied by the abolition of insulin therapy, occurs in 2-12% of patients. Partial remission (daily requirement for exogenous insulin of less than 0.4 U / kg body weight) has been described in 18–62% of young patients with IDDM [4, 17, 32]. The best (with a minimum need for insulin) and longer remission is observed in older patients at the time of the onset of the disease, in the absence of severe initial manifestations of the disease [17, 38], at low titers of autoantibodies to islet cell cytoplasm (1CA) or glutamate decarboxylase (GAD ) or their absence | 31,35,41]. In most studies, the point of view is expressed that a greater preservation of p-cell function is associated with achieving optimal metabolic control (Hb A1c) and maintaining the response of a cells to hypoglycemia by secretion of glucagon [15].

Problems of Endocrinology. 2000;46(2):14-16
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The cytochrome r-450 system and diabetes
Kovalev I.E., Rumyantseva E.I.
Abstract

All living creatures from the microbe to humans are endowed with heme-containing enzymes belonging to the superfamily of cytochrome P-450. This superfamily, as has now been established, includes more than 300 isoforms capable of catalyzing at least 60 types of enzymatic reactions with hundreds of thousands of chemical structures [39]. This superfamily of cytochrome P-450 is evolutionarily very ancient and, according to available estimates, exists in wildlife for more than 3.5 billion years [39].

Problems of Endocrinology. 2000;46(2):16-22
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Molecular genetic aspects of thyroid neoplasms
Dedov I.I., Troshina E.A., Mazurina N.V., Gerasimov G.A., Yushkov P.V., Shatalova L.D., Alexandrova G.F.
Abstract

Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of thyroid neoplasms are one of the most pressing problems of modern clinical endocrinology. This is due both to the continuous improvement of the methods for diagnosing thyroid neoplasms, and to the presence of many unresolved issues of their pathogenesis, and also to the oncological alertness of doctors [2-4].

Problems of Endocrinology. 2000;46(2):22-30
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Modern ideas about the genesis of prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas
Serebryansky O.Y., Melnichenko G.A., Romantsova T.I.
Abstract

Considering the pathogenesis of prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas, one should not regard this problem as a purely academic one, considering that mutations in genes and disruptions in the pituitary cell genome are a rather rare process. On the contrary, almost every second living person is a carrier of a violation in the pituitary cell genome, leading to the formation of an adenoma throughout life. Thus, over half a century, various authors emphasized that among non-selective autopsy material, the prevalence (up to 27-30% or more) of pituitary adenomas, which have no clinical manifestation, is unusually high [24]. The materials of analytical studies of recent years also show a lower (11-23%), but still quite significant level of detection of pituitary adenomas in the section [18, 59]. Assessment of intravital prevalence of asymptomatic pituitary adenomas performed in 100 volunteers (70 women and 30 men) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrasting gadolinium showed that among healthy volunteers of both sexes they occur in approximately 10% of cases (7 women and 3 men), varying from 3 to 6 mm in diameter [42]. A similar study performed among healthy women of reproductive age using high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scans (overlapping sections 1.5 mm thick) showed the same frequency of occurrence of such pituitary anomalies [85].

Problems of Endocrinology. 2000;46(2):30-41
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Evaluation of the effectiveness of long-term prevention of iodine deficiency by biological monitoring
Dreval A.V., Nechaev O.A., Kamynin T.S., Gerasimov G.A., Sviridenko N.Y., Mayorova N.M., Chikh I.D., Tishenina R.S., Anashkina G.A.
Abstract

Regular (for 5 years) addition of salt iodinated with potassium iodinate to diets of children living in a region with moderate iodine deficiency normalized iodine content in the organism, decreased the incidence of goiter from 22.6 to 7.3% (according to ultrasonic data), and prevented an increase in the incidence of goiter during the prepubertal period. Evaluation of the size of goiter in screening examinations by palpation using О. V. Nikolaev’s classification leads to hyperdiagnosis (67%>), while palpation in combination with WHO classification results in hypodiagnosis of goiter (47%). Palpation of the thyroid with WHO classification is recommended as the main screening method; such a combination of methods results in a lower incidence of erroneous diagnoses (22%) than with Nikolaev's classification (56%). The level of serum TTH did not depend on iodine prophylaxis and was normal.

Problems of Endocrinology. 2000;46(2):42-45
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Anniversary
Vsevolod Vasilievich Talantov (on the occasion of his 70th birthday)
 
Abstract

Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, Professor V.V. Talantov - student of prof. A. G. Those Regulova. V.V. Talantov has gone from a resident, assistant, assistant professor of the endocrinology department of Kazan State Medical Institute to the head of the endocrinology department of this institute.

Problems of Endocrinology. 2000;46(2):47-47
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Obituary
In memory of Professor I. G. Rakhmatullin
 
Abstract

In memory of Professor I. G. Rakhmatullin

Problems of Endocrinology. 2000;46(2):48-48
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